S toward Chambarak/ Krasnosyelsk,
last is the village of Aghavnavank,
until recently village of Salah, with Anapat-Astvatsatsin church
of the 11-13th c. and an early bridge on the Getik river. The
road enters to Gegharkunik Marz.
W of the Ijevan road N
of the Gosh turn-off is Hovk,
originally Aghkikhlu?, until recently Samed Vurghun (named after
the Lenin Prize-winning Azeri poet/dramatist, 1906-1956, famed
for his laconic style, author of some fine works but also
patriotic tracts such as “Partisans of the Ukraine” and
“On Reading Lenin”).
Nearby are ruins of
a church and
On hills overlooking the Aghstev valley E of Hovk are at
least three ruined castles, with great confusion over their
ancient and modern names. Keep looking up, and ask the locals.
On the summit of a hill E (or perhaps W) of the Aghstev
12 km SW (or maybe 15 km W) of Ijevan is the 7-9th c.
fortress of Mantash (or maybe Karakala), one of several
candidates to be the historical Kayan Berd. This site (or maybe
another one) has substantial remains of walls and towers.
If it really is Kayan
Berd, it presided in medieval times over the medieval district of
It was probably built in the 10th century under King
Ashot Yerkat, and restored under various masters, including
Atabeg Ivane Zakarian.
Besieged here by the Mongols in 1236, Avag the son of
Ivane prudently surrendered and became a valued Mongol ally.
The castle was destroyed at the end of the 14th century
during Timur Lenk's invasions. Another 4 km SW is an Aghjkaberd
(formerly Turkish Ghzghala, from the annoying early modern
custom of associating all castles with an imprisoned maiden) on
a wooded hill.
There might be a ruined church and some cisterns in the